Karnataka the six largest state in India has diverse ecosystems: wet evergreen, deciduous forests, thorn scrub forests, rocky outcrops, riverine and marine areas. The state sustain almost 25% of the elephant population and 20% of the tiger population of the country, and home to the largest population of tigers and elephants on the Earth.
Bandipur Tiger Reserve and National Park is India’s first Tiger Reserve: since 1974, it was established under Project Tiger. The park shares its border with other national parks and reserves such as Nagarahole, Wayanad, Mudumalai and Sathyamangalam – the whole area is for tigers (spread across Karnataka (Bandipur-Nagarahole), Tamil Nadu (Mudumalai-Sathyamangalam) and Kerala (Wayanad)).
Bandipuar National Park and Tiger Reserve is part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats, southern India. It is located in the Gundlulpet or Gundlupete, which is a town and taluq headquarters of Chamrajanagar district, the southernmost district of Karnataka.
Himavad Gopalaswamy Betta is the highest point in the park.
In 1931, during the British colonial period, the Maharaja of the Kingdom of Mysore, created a sanctuary in an area of 90 sq km and named it as Venugopala Wildlife Park (peacocks abound in the forest). It was once once a private hunting reserve for the maharajas of Kingdom of Mysore (Mysuru).
Bandipur National Park and Tiger Reserve is the point where Deccan Plateau meets Western Ghats
River Kabini flanks the park in the north and River Moyar in the south, and River Nugu cuts through the park.
The altitude park has distinct wet season and dry season: tropical climate, and rises to height between 680 m to about 1450 m. The elevation enables different biomes to exist: dry deciduous forests, moist deciduous forests, and shrublands.
Fauna: elephants, gaurs, tigers, golden jackals, langurs, sloth bears, Indian rock pythons, four-horned antelopes, dholes (a wild dog) thrive in the forests. Birds such as peafowls, jungle fowls, crows, honey buzzards, drongos, vultures (red-headed and Indian), flowerpeckers, Indian rollers, hoopoes, owls, eagles (crested serpent, hawk-eagles), bee-eaters, kingfishers, ospreys are found here. Reptiles as varied as Indian rock python, spectacled cobra, vipers, rat snake, chameleon, flying and monitor lizards, muggers, pond terrapin, and agamids are spotted.